Quad Voltage Controlled LFO / VCO Module A-143-4 is a fourfold voltage controlled low frequency oscillator (LFO). As the frequency range includes moderate audio frequencies it can be used as a four-fold VCO too. The module was planned mainly as a quad VCLFO. But we added a range switch (nothing but a switch for two different capacitors) so that even audio frequencies are possible and the module can be used as VCO with some restrictions too. Because of the closeness of the main circuitry (i.e. four VCO cores within less ~ 1 square millimeter) the oscillators may lock if the frequencies are very close to each other. The reset circuitry is optimized for the LFO mode. As it takes some time to discharge the oscillator capacitor the discharge time had to be chosen so that the capacitor is fully discharged in LFO mode. In the high range (where a much smaller capacitor is used) this will cause a zero state duration in the 0.3 ms range if the oscillator is synced (during this time the capacitor is shortened for discharge). The control scale of the inputs "CV1" is about 1V/octave. To improve the behaviour in the VCO mode a tempco circuit is used to keep the temperature of the exponential converter at a fixed temperature (similar to the tempco option of the DIY SYNTH).. That way the frequency of the VCOs (and even the VCLFOs) is nearly independent from the environment temperature. But the accuracy (1V/octave scale and temperature compensation) is not as precise as for the dedicated VCOs A-110 and A-111-1.